SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number: 001-38441
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2445 Technology Forest Blvd
Building 4, 12th Floor
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, determined by multiplying the outstanding shares on June 28, 2019, by the closing price on such day of $33.54 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was $2,575,029,140. The registrant, solely for the purpose of this required presentation, deemed its Board of Directors and executive officers to be affiliates, and deducted their stockholdings in determining the aggregate market value.
The registrant had 77,492,835 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding as of February 26, 2020.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to its 2020 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated, or such information will be included in an amendment to this Form 10-K in accordance with Instruction G(3) of Form 10-K.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” intended to qualify for the safe harbors from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this report are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements usually relate to future events and anticipated revenues, earnings, cash flows or other aspects of our operations or operating results. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “intend,” “foresee,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “may,” “estimate,” “outlook,” “guidance,” “potential,” “target,” “forecast” and similar expressions, including the negative thereof. The absence of these words, however, does not mean that the statements are not forward-looking. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations, beliefs and assumptions concerning future developments and business conditions and their potential effect on us. While management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made, there can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we anticipate.
All of our forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties (some of which are significant or beyond our control) and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from our historical experience and our present expectations or projections. Known material factors that could cause our actual results to differ from those in the forward-looking statements are those described in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We wish to caution you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any of our forward-looking statements after the date they are made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except to the extent required by law.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Apergy Corporation, a Delaware Corporation (“Apergy,” “we,” “us” or “our”), is a leading provider of highly engineered equipment and technologies that help companies drill for and produce oil and gas safely and efficiently around the world. Our products provide efficient functioning throughout the lifecycle of a well—from drilling to completion to production. We report our results of operations in the following reporting segments: Production & Automation Technologies and Drilling Technologies. Our Production & Automation Technologies segment offerings consist of artificial lift equipment and solutions, including rod pumping systems, electric submersible pump systems, progressive cavity pumps and drive systems and plunger lifts, as well as a full automation and digital offering consisting of equipment, software and Industrial Internet of Things solutions for downhole monitoring, wellsite productivity enhancement and asset integrity management. Our Drilling Technologies segment offering provides market leading polycrystalline diamond cutters and bearings that result in cost effective and efficient drilling.
Our products are used by a broad spectrum of customers in the global oil and gas industry, including national oil and gas companies, large integrated and independent oil and gas companies, major oilfield equipment and services providers, and pipeline companies. We compete across major oil and gas markets globally with a particular strength in the North American onshore market. Our products are particularly well suited for unconventional/shale oil and gas markets.
The quality, innovative technology and performance of our technologies drive improved cost-effectiveness, productivity, efficiency, reliability and safety for our customers. We believe our strong position in our core markets and our long-term customer relationships result from our focus on technological advancement, product reliability and our commitment to superior customer service across our organization. Our long-term customer relationships and the consumable nature of many of our products also enable us to benefit from recurring revenue throughout the lifecycle of a producing well. We believe we are differentiated from competitors through our proven business model focused on high customer intimacy, innovative technology, application engineering and a culture of continuous improvement.
We have a long history of innovation across our businesses, and our heritage in the oilfield equipment industry extends over 60 years. During this time, Apergy has expanded through a series of strategic acquisitions of well-known businesses and brands as well as internal growth initiatives. Key acquisitions that built our artificial lift platform include Harbison-Fischer, Wellmark, PCS Ferguson (f/k/a Production Controls Services, Inc.), Accelerated, and Oil Lift Technology. Our leading polycrystalline diamond cutter business was created through the acquisition of US Synthetic. Through our acquisitions, Apergy has developed experience as an effective operator and successful integrator of businesses.
Separation and Distribution
On May 9, 2018, Apergy became an independent, publicly traded company as a result of the distribution by Dover Corporation (“Dover”) of 100% of the outstanding common stock of Apergy to Dover’s stockholders. Dover’s Board of Directors approved the distribution on April 18, 2018 and Apergy’s Registration Statement on Form 10 was declared effective by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on April 19, 2018. On May 9, 2018, Dover’s stockholders of record as of the close of business on the record date of April 30, 2018 received one share of Apergy stock for every two shares of Dover stock held at the close of business on the record date (the “Separation”). Following the Separation, Dover retained no ownership interest in Apergy. Apergy’s common stock began “regular-way” trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the “APY” symbol on May 9, 2018.
Merger Agreement with ChampionX
On December 19, 2019, Apergy and Ecolab Inc. (“Ecolab”) announced the execution of an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization in which Ecolab will separate their upstream energy business (“ChampionX”) and simultaneously combine it with Apergy in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction (“the Merger”). Immediately prior to the Merger, Ecolab will transfer their upstream energy business to ChampionX and its subsidiaries (“ChampionX Separation”) and, thereafter, will distribute 100% of the shares of ChampionX common stock to Ecolab stockholders (“the Distribution”). Ecolab will offer its stockholders the option to exchange all or a portion of their shares of Ecolab common stock for shares of ChampionX common stock (“Exchange Offer”). In the event the Exchange Offer is not fully subscribed, Ecolab will distribute the remaining shares of ChampionX common stock owned by Ecolab on a pro-rata basis to Ecolab stockholders whose shares of Ecolab common stock remain outstanding after the Exchange Offer. Immediately following the Distribution, Athena Merger Sub, Inc., a wholly
owned subsidiary of Apergy, will merge with and into ChampionX, with ChampionX continuing as the surviving company in the Merger and as a wholly owned subsidiary of Apergy. References to “the Transactions” refer to the transactions described as ChampionX Separation, the Distribution and the Merger.
Upon completion of the Merger, each issued and outstanding share of ChampionX common stock will be converted into the right to receive a number of shares of Apergy common stock at an exchange ratio calculated such that following the Merger, ChampionX equityholders will own, in the aggregate, approximately 62% of the issued and outstanding shares of the combined company. Apergy equityholders will own, in the aggregate, approximately 38% of the issued and outstanding shares of the combined company. The Board of Directors for the combined company will include the seven current members of Apergy and two members designated by Ecolab. The Merger is expected to close during the second quarter of 2020.
Our business is organized into two reporting segments: Production & Automation Technologies and Drilling Technologies.
Production & Automation Technologies
Production & Automation Technologies provides products, technologies and services that facilitate the safe, efficient, and cost effective extraction of oil and gas. We design, manufacture, market and service a full range of artificial lift equipment, end-to-end automation and digital solutions, as well as other production equipment. A portion of Production & Automation Technologies revenue is derived from activity-based consumable products, as customers routinely replace items such as sucker rods, plunger lifts and pump parts. We believe that the combination of our artificial lift equipment and our end-to-end proprietary automation solutions helps oil and gas operators lower production costs and optimize well efficiency by enabling oil and gas operators to monitor, predict and optimize performance. Our products are sold under a collection of premier brands, which we believe are recognized by customers as leaders in their market spaces, including Harbison-Fischer, Norris, Alberta Oil Tool, Oil Lift Technology, PCS Ferguson, Pro-Rod, Upco, ESP, Norriseal-Wellmark, Quartzdyne, Spirit, Theta, Timberline and Windrock.
Artificial lift equipment is critical to oil and gas operators as a means to increase pressure within the reservoir and improve oil and gas production. Artificial lift is a key technology for increasing oil and gas production throughout the lifecycle of a producing well and is therefore directly linked to operator economics. Production & Automation Technologies offers a full suite of artificial lift solutions to meet the varying needs of operators as oil production volume levels decline over the lifecycle of a producing well, as illustrated in the figure below. Our comprehensive offering provides our customers with cost effective solutions tailored to a well’s specific characteristics and production volumes. We have a strong presence within key U.S. basins where artificial lift technologies are prevalent. We believe our offerings also have significant international potential, as production rates continue to decline in existing wells in regions such as the Middle East, South America and Eastern Europe.
Key artificial lift products include:
Electric Submersible Pump (“ESP”)—Our ESPs are fully integrated and customizable systems that are used during the earlier stages of production when barrels per day volume is at its highest level. Our ESP products include centrifugal pumps, gas handling devices, motors, controls and digital solutions to monitor and optimize ESP performance.
Gas Lift—Gas lift is a method of artificial lift that involves injecting high pressure gas to lift oil from a well. Gas lift is a preferred artificial lift for deviated wells and wells characterized by large amounts of sand or solid materials. We have been delivering innovative and flexible gas lift solutions to our customers for more than 30 years. Our software takes into account the complexity and production characteristics of the well to deliver the best gas lift solution for each well.
Rod Pumping Systems (“Rod Lift”)—As well production extends beyond the initial years, operators typically begin to employ a Rod Lift extraction solution. Our Rod Lift solutions include standard and fit-for-purpose sucker rods and accessories as well as a full range of downhole pumps that address all rod pumping applications. Rod Lift is one of the more prevalent lift solutions employed in wells in the United States and internationally. Our Rod Lift business provides for significant recurring revenue as sucker rods, pumps and accessories are replaced with use.
Progressive Cavity Pumps (“PCP”) Plunger, Hydraulic and Jet Lift Systems—We offer a full range of PCP solutions including top drives, high performance pumps, drive rods and controls; a broad range of plunger lift systems including surface, downhole equipment and controllers; and a full range of hydraulic and jet lift systems including jet pumps, hydraulic reciprocating pumps, surface multiplex pumps and automation controllers. These solutions are typically used in wells that have been producing for multiple years and are essential for increasing productivity at lower production volumes.
Our proprietary digital products are aimed at creating an end-to-end production optimization platform that enables oil and gas operators to monitor, predict and optimize well performance and drive improved return on investment during the production lifecycle. We are a leading provider of productivity tools and performance management software for artificial lift and asset integrity management. Our software has modular architecture that enables specific solutions to be tailored to meet exact customer needs. Real-time data is used by our customers to drive decisions, enhance well servicing and obtain an accurate picture of a well’s functioning over time, resulting in a more connected, digital wellsite that operates more efficiently and safely.
Digital solutions encompass multiple parts of the wellsite and allow an operator centralized monitoring and control capability. Smart instrumentation and hardware at the wellsite have sensing capabilities that allow for the capture of data. Once captured, the data is communicated to a cloud-based Industrial Internet of Things (“IIoT”) infrastructure platform where it can be analyzed and used to drive value enhancing insights for customers. We believe the combination of our digital products and our strong artificial lift presence enables us to drive continued adoption of digital solutions by our customers. We believe digital adoption is a key secular trend in the oil and gas industry, particularly in a lower oil price environment where operators are focused on lowering the cost per barrel produced over the lifecycle of a well.
Digital solutions bring together multiple layers of equipment, sensors and software. A site may employ a full-scale solution (e.g., a fully connected wellsite using our equipment and software) or a more application specific solution (e.g., a controller used for diagnostics on an ESP lift). Technologies included in our digital products offering include:
Production Optimization Solutions—Controllers and software solutions, including proprietary cloud-based software, to monitor and optimize artificial lift and production. Software is sold on a subscription based model and can be tailored to a breadth of customer requirements, resulting in a fit-for-purpose solution.
Downhole Monitoring Solutions—Quartz pressure transducers and smart downhole tools for measuring, monitoring and logging downhole well conditions to improve well productivity.
Asset Integrity Management Solutions—End-to-end digital IIoT solutions and portable analyzers to monitor, predict, and optimize health and performance of reciprocating compressors and engines used in wellsites, pipelines, refineries and chemical plants.
Other Production Equipment
We also offer other production equipment including chemical injection systems and flow control valves. These products are complementary to our artificial lift and digital technologies offerings.
Drilling Technologies provides highly specialized products used in drilling oil and gas wells. We design, manufacture and market polycrystalline diamond cutters (“PDC”) for use in drill bits under the US Synthetic brand. Our proprietary PDCs are based on years of innovation and intellectual property development in material science applications, including the production of highly stable synthetic diamonds, known as “polycrystalline diamonds.” US Synthetic has historically filed new patents at a rate of over 50 patents per year as we continue to advance our diamond science process knowledge and US Synthetic has previously received the prestigious Shingo Prize for operational excellence. We believe our highly engineered PDCs are distinguished by their quality, durability, rate of penetration and longevity. PDCs are a relatively small cost to the oil and gas operator in the context of overall drilling costs, but are critical to successful drilling. As a result, we believe our customers
value the quality and performance of US Synthetic PDCs over less expensive and lower capability alternatives because a lower quality PDC can cause unnecessary and expensive drilling delays. Our PDCs are primarily custom designed to meet unique customer requirements and are finished to exact customer specification to ensure optimal performance. PDCs are utilized in both vertical and horizontal drilling and are replaced as they wear during the drilling process.
Key products of our Drilling Technologies segment include:
PDC Drill Bit Inserts—Custom designed and manufactured drill bit inserts.
Diamond Bearings—Long-lasting diamond bearings for process-fluid lubricated applications, including underwater applications, downhole drilling tools and industrial pumps.
See Note 13—Revenue to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for revenue by end market for each of our reportable segments.
OTHER BUSINESS INFORMATION
The businesses in which we operate are highly competitive. The competitive factors in our businesses are customer service, product quality and performance, price, breadth of product offering, market expertise and innovation. We believe we differentiate ourselves from our competitors through our model of high customer intimacy, differentiated technology, innovation, and a superior level of customer service and a culture of continuous improvement.
We face competition from other manufacturers and suppliers of oil and gas production and drilling equipment. Production & Automation Technologies’ key competitors include Weatherford International plc, Baker Hughes, Halliburton, Schlumberger Ltd., BORETS, Tenaris, Novomet and Emerson. Drilling Technologies’ key competitors include DeBeers (Element 6), Schlumberger Ltd. (Mega Diamond) and various suppliers in China.
Customers, Sales and Distribution
We have built our businesses through high customer intimacy and superior customer service, and we view our intense customer focus as being central to the goal of creating value for all of our stakeholders. Drawing on our industry and application engineering expertise, we strive to develop close, collaborative relationships with our customers. We work closely with our customers’ engineering teams to develop technologies and applications that help improve efficiency, reliability and productivity.
We have established long-standing customer relationships with some of the largest operators in oil and gas drilling and production. Our customers include national oil and gas companies, large integrated as well as independent oil and gas companies, major oilfield equipment and service providers and pipeline companies.
We market and sell our products and technologies through a combination of sales representatives, technical seminars, trade shows and print advertising. We sell directly to customers through our direct sales force and indirectly through independent distributors and sales representatives. Our direct sales force is comprised of highly trained industry experts who can advise our customers on the advantages of our technologies and product offerings. We have developed an extensive network of sales and service locations throughout key regions and basins in North America to better serve our customers. We also host forums and training sessions, such as our Artificial Lift Academy, where our customers can share their experiences, and where we can educate and train our customers in the use of our new technologies. Nearly all of our Drilling Technologies sales, and the majority of our Production & Automation Technologies sales in 2019, were sold directly to the end-use customer.
In addition to our direct sales force, we support a global network of distributors and representatives. We provide our distributors with sales and product literature, advertising and sales promotions, and technical assistance and training with our products. Many of our distributors also stock our products.
Our customer base is diverse. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our 2019 consolidated revenue.
We own many patents, trademarks, licenses and other forms of intellectual property, which have been acquired over many years and, to the extent relevant, expire at various times. A large portion of our intellectual property consists of patents, unpatented technology and proprietary information constituting trade secrets that we seek to protect in various ways, including confidentiality agreements with employees and suppliers where appropriate. While our intellectual property is important to our success, the loss or expiration of any of these rights, or any group of related rights, is not likely to materially affect our results of operations on a consolidated basis. We believe that our commitment to continuous engineering improvements, new product development and improved manufacturing techniques, as well as sales, marketing and service expertise, are significant to our leadership positions in the markets we serve.
Research and Development
We operate in markets that are characterized by changing technology and frequent new product introductions. As a result, our success is dependent on our ability to develop and introduce new technologies and products for our customers. We maintain an active research, development and engineering program with a focus on developing innovative products and solutions, upgrading and improving existing offerings to satisfy the changing needs of our customers, expanding revenue opportunities domestically and internationally, maintaining or extending competitive advantages, improving product reliability and reducing production costs. We believe maintaining a robust innovation and product pipeline will allow us to continue to increase our penetration in key businesses and with key customers.
We use a wide variety of raw materials, primarily metals and semi-processed or finished components. We have not historically experienced material impacts to our financial results due to shortages or the loss of any single supplier. Although the required raw materials are generally available, commodity pricing for metals, such as nickel, chrome, molybdenum, vanadium, manganese and steel scrap, fluctuate with market conditions. Recently, tariffs have increased our material input costs, and any further trade restrictions, retaliatory trade measures and additional tariffs implemented could result in higher input costs to our products. Although cost increases in commodities may be recovered through increased prices to customers, our operating results are exposed to such fluctuations. We attempt to control such costs through short-duration, fixed-price contracts with suppliers and various other programs, such as our global supply chain initiatives. We source material internationally to achieve the most competitive cost structure. Our global supply chain is intended to provide us with cost-effective solutions for raw materials. Our supply chain could be exposed to logistical disruptions. We maintain domestic suppliers in most cases to provide for contingencies and back-up sources. Despite contingencies and back-up supply optionality, sustained inflation and unpredictable disruptions to supply could have an adverse impact on our business.
Our business is generally not impacted by high levels of seasonality, except for a small portion of our operations in Canada where the level of drilling activity during the first half of the year is influenced by weather patterns. During the spring months in Canada, wet weather and the spring thaw make the ground unstable and less capable of supporting heavy equipment and machinery. As a result, municipalities and provincial transportation departments enforce road bans that restrict the movement of heavy equipment during the spring months, which reduces our customers’ activity levels. As such, there is greater demand for our products, specifically those provided by our Drilling Technologies business, in the fall and winter seasons when weather conditions allow for increased levels of drilling activities. In recent years, there have been times of budget exhaustion by our customers, which lowers customers’ spending in the later part of the year, especially in the fourth quarter.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 3,000 employees in ten countries. Approximately 100 of our employees in the United States are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. Outside the United States, some of our employees are represented by unions or works councils.
Regulation and Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Matters
Our operations are subject to a variety of international, national, state and local laws and regulations, including those relating to the discharge of materials into the environment, worker health and safety, or otherwise relating to human health and environmental protection. Failure to comply with these laws or regulations may result in the assessment of administrative, civil
and criminal penalties, imposition of remedial or corrective action requirements, and the imposition of injunctions to prohibit certain activities or force future compliance.
In addition, we depend on the demand for our products and services from the oil and gas industry and, therefore, are affected by changing taxes, price controls, tariffs and trade restrictions and other laws and regulations relating to the oil and gas industry in general, including those specifically directed to hydraulic fracturing and onshore products. The adoption of laws and regulations curtailing exploration, drilling or production in the oil and gas industry, or the imposition of more stringent enforcement of existing regulations, could adversely affect our operations by limiting demand for our products and services or restricting our customers’ operations. Refer to Item 1A, Risk Factors for additional information related to certain risks regarding regulations and environmental matters.
We utilize behavioral-based safety practices to promote a safe working environment for all of our employees. On a constant basis, safety is prioritized, measured and promoted throughout all levels of our organization. We continued our “Journey to Zero” program which teaches that all incidents are preventable. The core tenets of our program advocate (i) constant awareness and education of safety principles, (ii) consistent safety behaviors and practices, and (iii) preventing and learning from incidents. Additionally, our operations are subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations relating to workplace safety and worker health, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act and regulations promulgated thereunder.
We have incurred and will continue to incur operating and capital expenditures to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Historically, there have been no material effects upon our earnings and competitive position resulting from our compliance with such laws or regulations; however, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future or that such future compliance will not have a material adverse effect on our business or operational costs.
Website Access to Reports
Our Internet website address is https://apergy.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to each of those reports, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Alternatively, our reports may be accessed through the website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov. Unless expressly noted, the information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other filing we make with the SEC.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Current Position and Business Experience
President and Chief Executive Officer (2018)
Vice President of Dover Corporation and President and Chief Executive Officer of Dover Energy (2013)
Jay A. Nutt
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2018)
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer—Dover Energy of Dover Corporation (2018)
Senior Vice President and Controller of TechnipFMC plc (2017)
Vice President, Controller and Treasurer of FMC Technologies, Inc. (2015)
Vice President and Controller of FMC Technologies, Inc. (2009)
Amy Thompson Broussard
Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (2018)
Vice President, Human Resources—Dover Energy of Dover Corporation (2016)
Vice President of Human Resources—Dover Artificial Lift of Dover Corporation (2014)
Director of Human Resources—Western Hemisphere HR Service Centers of Baker Hughes Inc. (2013)
Robert K. Galloway
President, Drilling Technologies (2018)
President—US Synthetic of Dover Corporation (2010)
Paul E. Mahoney
President, Production & Automation Technologies (2018)
President—Dover Artificial Lift of Dover Corporation (2014)
Chief Operations Officer and Senior Vice President of Global Sales and Operations—Dover Artificial Lift of Dover Corporation (2012)
Senior Vice President and Chief Digital Officer (2018)
President—Dover Energy Automation of Dover Corporation (2016)
Vice President and General Manager—Advanced Solutions of Honeywell Process Solutions (2014)
General Manager Advanced Solutions—Europe, Middle East & Africa of Honeywell Process Solutions (2013)
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary (2018)
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary—Dover Energy of Dover Corporation (2018)
Vice President and General Counsel of Nabors Industries Ltd. (2016)
Interim General Counsel of Nabors Industries Ltd. (2016)
Assistant General Counsel of Nabors Industries Ltd. (2013)
No family relationships exist among any of the above-listed officers, and there are no arrangements or understandings between any of the above-listed officers and any other person pursuant to which they serve as an officer. During the past ten years, none of the above-listed officers was involved in any legal proceedings as defined in Item 401(f) of Regulation S-K. All officers are elected by the Board of Directors to hold office until their successors are elected and qualified.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should carefully consider the following risk factors. Each of these risk factors could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as affect the value of an investment in our common stock.
We also face certain risks in connection with our proposed acquisition of ChampionX as described above in Item 1 of this Form 10-K. We encourage you to consider the risks below under the caption “Risks Related to the Proposed Acquisition of ChampionX” and the risk factors set forth in our registration statement on Form S-4 (Registration No. 333-236379), filed with the SEC on February 11, 2020, for additional risk factors relating to our proposed acquisition of ChampionX.
Risks Related to Our Business
Trends in crude oil and natural gas prices may affect the drilling and production activity, profitability and financial stability of our customers and therefore the demand for, and profitability of, our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The oil and gas industry is cyclical in nature and experiences periodic downturns of varying length and severity. The oil and gas industry experienced a significant downturn in 2015 and 2016 as a result of a sharp decline in crude oil prices. Crude oil prices slightly recovered in late 2016 and into 2017, but experienced a volatile decline again during late 2018. Price volatility continued throughout 2019 and into early 2020. Demand for our products and services is sensitive to the level of capital spending by oil and natural gas companies and the corresponding drilling and production activity. The level of drilling and production activity is directly affected by trends in crude oil and natural gas prices, which are influenced by numerous factors affecting the supply and demand for oil and gas, including:
worldwide economic activity including disruption to global trade;
the level of exploration and production activity;
interest rates and the cost of capital;
federal, state and foreign policies and regulations regarding current and future exploration and development of oil and gas;
the ability and/or desire of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and other major producers to set and maintain production levels and influence pricing;
the cost of exploring and producing oil and gas;
the pace of adoption and cost of developing alternative energy sources;
the availability, expiration date and price of onshore and offshore leases;
the discovery rate of new oil and gas reserves in onshore and offshore areas;
the success of drilling for oil and gas in unconventional resource plays such as shale formations;
the depletion rate of existing wells in productions;
takeaway capacity within producing basins;
alternative opportunities to invest in onshore exploration and production opportunities;
domestic and global political and economic uncertainty, socio-political unrest and instability, terrorism or hostilities;
the recent coronavirus outbreak or other health epidemics;
technological advances; and
We expect continued volatility in both crude oil and natural gas prices, as well as in the level of drilling and production related activities. Our ability to regulate our operating activities in response to lower oilfield service activity levels during periodic industry downturns is important to our business, results of operations and prospects. However, a significant downturn in the industry could result in the reduction in demand for our products and services and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We might be unable to successfully compete with other companies in our industry.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive. The principal competitive factors in our markets are customer service, product quality and performance, price, breadth of product offering, market expertise and innovation. In some of our product and service offerings, we compete with the oil and gas industry’s largest oilfield service providers. These large national and multi-national companies may have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, and a stronger presence in geographic markets than us. They may also have more robust financial and technical capabilities. In addition, we compete with many
smaller companies capable of effectively competing on a regional or local basis. Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and services and changes in customer requirements. Many contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which further increases competition based on price. As a result of the competitive environment in which we operate, we may lose market share, be unable to maintain or increase prices for our products and services, or be unable to acquire additional business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
If we are unable to develop new products and technologies, our competitive position may be impaired, which could materially and adversely affect our sales and market share.
The markets in which we operate are characterized by changing technologies and the introduction of new products and services. As a result, our success is dependent upon our ability to develop or acquire new products and services on a cost-effective basis, to introduce them into the marketplace in a timely manner, and to protect and maintain critical intellectual property assets related to these developments. Difficulties or delays in research, development or production of new products and technologies, or failure to gain market acceptance of new products and technologies, may significantly reduce future revenue and materially and adversely affect our competitive position. While we intend to continue to commit financial resources and effort to the development of new products and services, we may not be able to successfully differentiate our products and services from those of our competitors. Our customers may not consider our proposed products and services to be of value to them or may not view them as superior to our competitors’ products and services. In addition, our competitors or customers may develop new technologies which address similar or improved solutions to our existing technologies. Further, we may not be able to adapt to evolving markets and technologies, develop new products, achieve and maintain technological advantages or protect technological advantages through intellectual property rights. If we do not successfully compete through the development and introduction of new products and technologies, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
We could lose customers or generate lower revenue, operating profits and cash flows if there are significant increases in the cost of raw materials or if we are unable to obtain raw materials.
We purchase raw materials, sub-assemblies and components for use in our manufacturing operations, which exposes us to volatility in prices for certain commodities. Significant price increases for these commodities could adversely affect our operating profits. While we generally attempt to mitigate the impact of increased raw material prices by endeavoring to make strategic purchasing decisions, broadening our supplier base and passing along increased costs to customers, there may be a time delay between the increased raw material prices and the ability to increase the prices of our products. Additionally, we may be unable to increase the prices of our products due to a competitor’s pricing pressure or other factors. While raw materials are generally available now, the inability to obtain necessary raw materials could affect our ability to meet customer commitments and satisfy market demand for certain products. Certain of our product lines depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers and vendors. The ability of these third parties to deliver raw materials may be affected by events beyond our control. In addition, public health threats, such as the coronavirus, severe influenza and other highly communicable viruses or diseases could limit access to vendors and their facilities, as well as limited access or shutdown of our facilities, or the ability to transport raw materials from our vendors, adversely affecting our ability to obtain necessary raw materials for certain of our products. Consequently, a significant price increase in raw materials, or their unavailability, may result in a loss of customers and adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Federal, state and local legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to oil and gas development and the potential for related litigation could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays for our customers, which could reduce demand for our products and negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Environmental laws and regulations could limit our customers’ exploration and production activities. Although we do not directly engage in drilling or hydraulic fracturing activities, we provide products and services to operators in the oil and gas industry. There has been significant growth in opposition to oil and gas development both in the United States and globally. This opposition is focused on attempting to limit or stop hydrocarbon development in certain areas. Examples of such opposition include: (i) efforts to reduce access to public and private lands, (ii) delaying or canceling permits for drilling or pipeline construction, (iii) limiting or banning industry techniques such as hydraulic fracturing, and/or adding restrictions on the use of water and associated disposal, (iv) delaying or denying air-quality permits, and (v) advocating for increased regulations, punitive taxation, or citizen ballot initiatives or moratoriums on industry activity.
In addition, various state and local governments have implemented, or are considering, increased regulatory oversight of oil and gas development through additional permitting requirements, operational restrictions, including on the time, place and manner of drilling activities, disclosure requirements and temporary or permanent bans on hydraulic fracturing or other facets
of crude oil and natural gas exploration and development in certain areas such as environmentally sensitive watersheds. Increased regulation and opposition to oil and gas activities could increase the potential for litigation concerning these activities, and could include companies who provide products and services used in hydrocarbon development, such as ours.
The adoption of new laws or regulations at the federal, state, or local levels imposing reporting obligations, or otherwise limiting or delaying hydrocarbon development, could make it more difficult to complete oil and gas wells, increase our customers’ costs of compliance and doing business, and otherwise adversely affect the oil and gas activities they pursue. Such developments could negatively impact demand for our products and services. In addition, heightened political, regulatory and public scrutiny, including lawsuits, could expose us or our customers to increased legal and regulatory proceedings, which could be time-consuming, costly, or result in substantial legal liability or significant reputational harm. We could be directly affected by adverse litigation or indirectly affected if the cost of compliance or the risks of liability limit the ability or willingness of our customers to operate. Such costs and scrutiny could directly or indirectly, through reduced demand for our products and services, have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We and our customers are subject to extensive environmental and health and safety laws and regulations that may increase our costs, limit the demand for our products and services or restrict our operations.
Our operations and the operations of our customers are subject to numerous and complex federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health, safety and the environment. These laws and regulations may adversely affect our customers by limiting or curtailing their exploration, drilling and production activities, the products and services we design, market and sell and the facilities where we manufacture our products. For example, our operations and the operations of our customers are subject to numerous and complex laws and regulations that, among other things: may regulate the management and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes; may require acquisition of environmental permits related to operations; may restrict the types, quantities and concentrations of various materials that can be released into the environment; may limit or prohibit operational activities in certain ecologically sensitive and other protected areas; may regulate specific health and safety criteria addressing worker protection; may require compliance with operational and equipment standards; may impose testing, reporting and record-keeping requirements; and may require remedial measures to mitigate pollution from former and ongoing operations. Sanctions for noncompliance with such laws and regulations may include revocation of permits, corrective action orders, administrative or civil penalties, criminal prosecution and the imposition of injunctions to prohibit certain activities or force future compliance.
Some environmental laws and regulations provide for joint and several strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of hazardous substances. In addition, Apergy or its customers may be subject to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as a result of alleged exposure to hazardous substances, as well as damage to natural resources. These laws and regulations may expose Apergy or its customers to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by others, or for our acts or for the acts of our customers that were in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations at the time such acts were performed. Any of these laws and regulations could result in claims, fines or expenditures that could be material to our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Environmental laws and regulations, and the interpretation and enforcement thereof, frequently change, and have tended to become more stringent over time. New laws and regulations may have a material adverse effect on our customers by limiting or curtailing their exploration, drilling and production activities, which may adversely affect our operations by limiting demand for our products and services. Additionally, the implementation of new laws and regulations may have a material adverse effect on our operating results by requiring us to modify our operations or products or shut down some or all of our facilities.
Numerous proposals have been made, and are likely to continue to be made, at various levels of government to monitor and limit emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHG”). Past sessions of the U.S. Congress considered, but did not enact, legislation to address climate change. The EPA and other federal agencies previously issued regulations that aim to reduce GHG emissions; however, the current administration has generally indicated an interest in scaling back or rescinding regulations addressing GHG emissions, including those affecting the U.S. oil and gas industry. It is difficult to predict the extent to which such policies will be implemented or the outcome of any related litigation. Any regulation of GHG emissions could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions for Apergy and/or its customers and limit or curtail exploration, drilling and production activities of our customers, which could directly or indirectly, through reduced demand for our products and services, adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our growth and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are unable to complete third party acquisitions on acceptable terms.
Over time, we expect to acquire value creating, add-on capabilities that broaden our existing technological, geographic, and cost position, thereby complementing our existing businesses. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to find suitable opportunities to purchase or to acquire such capabilities on acceptable terms. If we are unsuccessful in our acquisition efforts, our revenue growth could be adversely affected. In addition, we face the risk that a completed acquisition may underperform relative to expectations. We may not achieve the synergies originally anticipated, may become exposed to unexpected liabilities, or may not be able to sufficiently integrate completed acquisitions into our current business and growth model. These factors could potentially have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our products are used in operations that are subject to potential hazards inherent in the oil and gas industry, and as a result, we are exposed to potential liabilities that may affect our financial condition and reputation.
Our products are used in potentially hazardous drilling, completion and production applications in the oil and gas industry where an accident or a failure of a product can potentially have catastrophic consequences. Risks inherent in these applications, such as equipment malfunctions and failures, equipment misuse and defects, explosions, blowouts and uncontrollable flows of oil, natural gas or well fluids can cause personal injury, loss of life, suspension of operations, damage to formations, damage to facilities, business interruption and damage to or destruction of property, surface and drinking water resources, equipment and the environment. While we currently maintain insurance protection against some of these risks and seek to obtain indemnity agreements from our customers requiring them to hold us harmless from some of these risks, our current insurance and contractual indemnity protection may not be sufficient or effective enough to protect us under all circumstances or against all risks. The occurrence of a significant event not fully insured or indemnified against, or the failure of a customer to meet its indemnification obligations to us could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our industry is undergoing continuing consolidation that may impact our results of operations.
The oil and gas industry continues to experience consolidation, and as a result, some of our largest customers have consolidated and are using their size and purchasing power to seek economies of scale and pricing concessions. This consolidation may result in reduced capital spending by some of our customers or the acquisition of one or more of our primary customers, which may lead to decreased demand for our products and services. There is no assurance that we will be able to maintain our level of sales to a customer that has consolidated, or replace that revenue with increased business activity with other customers. As a result, the acquisition of one or more of our primary customers may have a significant adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. We are unable to predict what effect consolidations in the industry may have on prices, capital spending by our customers, our selling strategies, our competitive position, our ability to retain customers or our ability to negotiate favorable agreements with our customers.
We are subject to information technology, cybersecurity and privacy risks.
We depend on various information technologies to store and process information and support our business activities. We also manufacture and sell hardware and software to provide monitoring, controls and optimization of customer critical assets in oil and gas production and distribution. We also provide services to maintain these systems. Additionally, our operations rely upon partners, vendors and other third-party providers of information technology software and services. If any of these information technologies, products or services are damaged, cease to properly function, are breached due to employee error, malfeasance, system errors, or other vulnerabilities, or are subject to cybersecurity attacks, such as those involving unauthorized access, malicious software and/or other intrusions, Apergy or its partners, vendors or other third parties could experience: (i) production downtimes, (ii) operational delays, (iii) the compromising of confidential, proprietary or otherwise protected information, including personal and customer data, (iv) destruction, corruption, or theft of data, (v) security breaches, (vi) other manipulation, disruption, misappropriation or improper use of its systems or networks, (vii) financial losses from remedial actions, (viii) loss of business or potential liability, (ix) adverse media coverage, and (x) legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, and/or damage to reputation. While we attempt to mitigate these risks by employing a number of measures, including employee training, technical security controls and maintenance of backup and protective systems, Apergy’s and its partners’, vendors’ and other third-parties’ systems, networks, products and services remain potentially vulnerable to known or unknown cybersecurity attacks and other threats, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to risks relating to existing international operations and expansion into new geographical markets.
We continue to focus on expanding sales globally as part of our overall growth strategy and expect sales from outside the United States to continue to represent a significant portion of our revenue. Our international operations and our global expansion strategy are subject to general risks related to such operations, including:
political, social and economic instability and disruptions;
government export controls, economic sanctions, embargoes or trade restrictions;
the imposition of duties and tariffs and other trade barriers;
limitations on ownership and on repatriation or dividend of earnings;
transportation delays and interruptions;
labor unrest and current and changing regulatory environments;
increased compliance costs, including costs associated with disclosure requirements and related due diligence;
difficulties in staffing and managing multi-national operations;
limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies;
access to or control of networks and confidential information due to local government controls and vulnerability of local networks to cyber risks; and
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
If we are unable to successfully manage the risks associated with expanding our global business or adequately manage operational risks of our existing international operations, these risks could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy into new geographical markets, our reputation, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Tariffs and other trade measures could adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
In 2019 the U.S. government continued to impose tariffs on steel and aluminum and a broad range of other products imported into the United States. In response to the tariffs imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, India and China have announced tariffs on U.S. goods and services. The tariffs have increased our material input costs, and any further trade restrictions, retaliatory trade measures and additional tariffs could result in higher input costs to our products. We may not be able to fully mitigate the impact of these increased costs or pass price increases on to our customers. While tariffs and other retaliatory trade measures imposed by other countries on U.S. goods have not yet had a significant impact on our business or results of operations, we cannot predict further developments, and such existing or future tariffs could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Changes in domestic and foreign governmental and public policy changes, risks associated with emerging markets, changes in statutory tax rates and laws, and unanticipated outcomes with respect to tax audits could adversely affect our business, profitability and reputation.
Our domestic and international sales and operations are subject to risks associated with changes in laws, regulations and policies (including environmental and employment regulations, export/import laws, tax policies such as export subsidy programs and research and experimentation credits, carbon emission regulations and other similar programs). Failure to comply with any of the foregoing laws, regulations and policies could result in civil and criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties, as well as damage to our reputation. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that our costs of complying with new and evolving regulatory reporting requirements and current or future laws, including environmental protection, employment, data security, data privacy and health and safety laws, will not exceed our estimates. In addition, Apergy has made investments in certain countries, including Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Colombia and Oman, and may in the future invest in other countries, any of which may carry high levels of currency, political, compliance, or economic risk. While these risks or the impact of these risks are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could adversely affect our business, results of operations and reputation.
We are subject to taxation in a number of jurisdictions, including foreign and domestic. Accordingly, our effective tax rate is impacted by changes in the mix among earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates. A material change in the statutory tax rate or interpretation of local law in a jurisdiction in which we have significant operations could adversely impact our effective tax rate and impact our financial results. For example, the U.S. bill commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Reform Act”), which was enacted on December 22, 2017, significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries and imposing limitations on the ability to deduct interest expense.
Our tax returns are subject to audit and taxing authorities could challenge our operating structure, taxable presence, application of treaty benefits or transfer pricing policies. If changes in statutory tax rates or laws or audits result in assessments different from amounts estimated, then our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected. In addition, changes in tax laws could have an adverse effect on our customers, resulting in lower demand for our products and services.
Failure to attract, retain and develop personnel for key management could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our growth, profitability and effectiveness in conducting our operations and executing our strategic plans depend in part on our ability to attract, retain and develop qualified personnel, align them with appropriate opportunities for key management positions and support for strategic initiatives. Additionally, during periods of increased investment in the oil and gas industry, competition to hire may increase and the availability of qualified personnel may be reduced. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, market share and competitive position could be adversely affected. Additionally, we could miss opportunities for growth and efficiencies.
The credit risks of our customer base could result in losses.
Many of our customers are oil and gas companies that have faced or may in the future face liquidity constraints during adverse commodity price environments. These customers impact our overall exposure to credit risk as they are also affected by prolonged changes in economic and industry conditions such as the current downturn in the oil and gas industry as a result of the lower crude oil and natural gas price environment. If a significant number of our customers experience a prolonged business decline or disruptions, we may incur increased exposure to credit risk and bad debts.
The loss of one or more significant customers could have an adverse impact on our financial results.
Our customers represent a combination of some of the largest operators in the oil and gas drilling and production markets, including major integrated, large, medium and small independents, and foreign national oil and gas companies, as well as oilfield equipment and service providers. In 2019, our top 10 customers represented approximately 41% of total revenue. While Apergy is not dependent on any one customer or group of customers, the loss of one or more of our significant customers could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The inability to protect or obtain patent and other intellectual property rights could adversely affect our revenue, operating profits and cash flows.
We own patents, trademarks, licenses and other intellectual property related to our product and services, and continuously invest in research and development that may result in innovations and intellectual property rights. We employ various measures to develop, maintain and protect our innovations and intellectual property rights. These measures may not be effective in capturing intellectual property rights, and they may not prevent our intellectual property from being challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, particularly in countries where intellectual property rights are not highly developed or protected. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights and any potential litigation we may initiate or may have been initiated against us in respect of our intellectual property rights could adversely impact our competitive position and have a negative impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A deterioration in our future expected profitability or cash flows could result in an impairment of our recorded goodwill and intangible assets.
Apergy has significant goodwill and intangible assets recorded on its consolidated balance sheet. The valuation and classification of these assets and the assignment of useful lives to intangible assets involve significant judgments and the use of estimates. Impairment testing of goodwill and intangible assets requires significant use of judgment and assumptions, particularly as it relates to the determination of fair market value. A decrease in the long-term economic outlook and future cash flows of our business could significantly impact asset values and potentially result in the impairment of intangible assets, including goodwill. Although fair values currently exceed carrying values for each reporting unit, the value of our business could be unfavorably impacted by steep declines in revenue and order rates as drilling and production activity would be reduced due to sustained unfavorable crude oil prices and lower U.S. rig counts. Accordingly, sustained future economic declines could result in impairment charges that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our reputation, ability to do business and results of operations may be impaired by improper conduct by or disputes with any of our employees, agents or business partners.
Our operations require us to comply with a number of U.S. and international laws and regulations, including those governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, anti-kickback and false claims, competition, export and import compliance, money laundering and data privacy, as well as the improper use of proprietary information or social media. In particular, our international operations are subject to the regulations imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010 as well as anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of various jurisdictions in which we operate. While we strive to maintain high standards, we cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents or business partners that would violate such U.S. or international laws or regulations or fail to protect our confidential information. Any such violations of law or improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the United States or other jurisdictions, could lead to substantial civil or criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties and related stockholder lawsuits, could lead to increased costs of compliance and could damage our reputation, business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Additionally, we conduct some operations through joint ventures in which unaffiliated third parties may control or have significant influence on the operations of the joint venture. As with any joint venture arrangement, differences in views among the joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions, the joint venture operating in a manner that is contrary to our preference or in failures to agree on major issues. These factors could have a material adverse effect on the business and results of operations of our joint ventures and, in turn, our business and consolidated results of operations.
Our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations on cross-border transactions and the translation of local currency results into U.S. dollars could negatively impact our results of operations.
A portion of our business is transacted and/or denominated in foreign currencies, and fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a significant impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, which are presented in U.S. dollars. Cross-border transactions, both with external parties and intercompany relationships, result in increased exposure to foreign exchange effects. Although the impact of foreign currency fluctuations on our results of operations has historically not been material, significant changes in currency exchange rates, principally the Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Argentinian Peso, Omani Rial, and Colombian Peso, could negatively affect our results of operations. Additionally, the strengthening of the U.S. dollar potentially exposes us to competitive threats from lower cost producers in other countries and could result in unfavorable translation effects as the results of foreign locations are translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes.
Natural disasters and unusual weather conditions could have an adverse impact on our business.
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters or severe weather conditions. Hurricanes, tropical storms, flash floods, blizzards, cold weather and other natural disasters or severe weather conditions could result in evacuation of personnel, curtailment of services, damage to equipment and facilities, interruption in transportation of products and materials, and loss of productivity. For example, certain of our manufactured products and components are manufactured at a single facility, and disruptions in operations or damage to any such facilities could reduce our ability to manufacture our products and satisfy customer demand. If our customers are unable to operate or are required to reduce operations due to severe weather conditions, our business could be adversely affected as a result of curtailed deliveries of our products and services.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and operating flexibility.
In connection with the Separation, we incurred a significant amount of indebtedness. Subject to the limits contained in the credit agreement governing our senior secured credit facilities and the indenture that governs our senior notes, we may incur substantial additional indebtedness from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions, or for other purposes. If we do so, the risks related to our level of indebtedness could intensify.
Specifically, our level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including:
difficulty for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our outstanding debt;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund our business operations;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities, are at variable rates of interest;
limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry in which we compete;
placing us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
In addition, the credit agreement governing our senior secured credit facilities and the indenture that governs our senior notes contain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term interests. Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of the repayment obligations of our debt.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, as well as any future indebtedness that we may incur, depends upon the level of cash flows generated by our operations, our ability to sell assets, availability under our revolving credit facility, and our ability to access the capital markets and/or other sources of financing. Our ability to generate cash is subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. If we are not able to repay or refinance our indebtedness as it becomes due, we may be forced to sell assets or take other disadvantageous actions, including (i) reducing financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate purposes or (ii) dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. In addition, our ability to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in the oil and gas industry could be impaired.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and, as a result, our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures are not effective.
Management has identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as a result of which management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2019. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. These material weaknesses relate to (a) the ineffective control environment due to a lack of a sufficient complement of personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training at our Artificial Lift business, (b) ineffective risk assessment component of internal control related to the ESP subsidiary (which is part of the Artificial Lift business) as controls were not appropriately designed to ensure that the subsidiary, which was experiencing significant growth and turnover of personnel, had the proper resources to operate a complex business model, (c) a lack of controls designed and maintained within certain of our Artificial Lift businesses over the completeness, accuracy, occurrence or cut-off of revenue and within ESP over the valuation of accounts receivable, (d) a lack of controls maintained to ensure that journal entries were properly prepared with appropriate supporting documentation or were reviewed and approved appropriately to ensure the accuracy of journal entries at ESP, (e) a lack controls designed and maintained over the completeness, accuracy, and existence or presentation and disclosure of inventory and fixed assets at ESP, and (f) a lack of controls designed and maintained over user roles within the general ledger system across the Company, which defines the actions an individual can perform within the system.
We are currently in the process of developing and implementing a remediation plan to address these material weaknesses. We expect to incur significant additional expenses in connection with implementing remedial measures. If our remedial measures are insufficient to address the material weaknesses, or if additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting are identified or subsequently arise, our consolidated financial statements may contain material misstatements, and we may be required to restate our financial results, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, restrict our ability to access the capital markets, require significant resources to correct the material weaknesses or deficiencies, subject us to fines, penalties or judgments, harm our reputation or otherwise cause a decline in investor confidence and cause a decline in the market price of our stock.
Risks Related to the Separation
Potential indemnification liabilities between Apergy and Dover pursuant to the separation and distribution agreement could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The separation and distribution agreement, among other things, provides for indemnification obligations designed to make Apergy financially responsible for substantially all liabilities that may exist relating to its business activities, whether incurred prior to or after the Separation. If we are required to indemnify Dover under the circumstances set forth in the separation and distribution agreement, we may be subject to substantial liabilities.
Additionally, pursuant to the separation and distribution agreement and certain other agreements with Dover, Dover agreed to indemnify Apergy for certain liabilities. However, third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities
that Dover has agreed to retain, and there can be no assurance that the indemnity from Dover will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that Dover will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. In addition, Dover’s insurers may attempt to deny coverage to Apergy for liabilities associated with certain occurrences of indemnified liabilities prior to the Separation. Moreover, even if Apergy ultimately succeeds in recovering from Dover or such insurance providers any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses until recovery is achieved. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to continuing contingent liabilities of Dover following the Separation.
There are several significant areas where the liabilities of Dover may become Apergy’s obligations. For example, under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) and related rules and regulations, each corporation that was a member of the Dover U.S. consolidated group during a taxable period, or portion of a taxable period ending on or before the effective time of the distribution, is jointly and severally liable for the U.S. federal income tax liability of the entire Dover U.S. consolidated group for that taxable period. Consequently, we could be required to pay the entire amount of Dover’s consolidated U.S. federal income tax liability for a prior period, which could be substantial and in excess of the amount allocated to us under the tax matters agreement. Other provisions of federal law establish similar liability for other matters, including laws governing tax-qualified pension plans as well as other contingent liabilities.
If the distribution in connection with the Separation, together with certain related transactions, does not qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Dover could be subject to significant tax liability and, in certain circumstances, Apergy could be required to indemnify Dover for material taxes pursuant to indemnification obligations under the tax matters agreement.
Prior to the distribution, Dover received a private letter ruling from the IRS (the “IRS Ruling”) together with an opinion of McDermott Will & Emery LLP, tax counsel to Dover, substantially to the effect that, among other things, the contribution and the distribution, taken together, would qualify as a tax-free reorganization for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and the distribution would qualify as a tax-free distribution to Dover’s stockholders under Section 355 of the Code. The IRS Ruling relies on, and the opinion of tax counsel relies on, certain facts and assumptions, and certain representations and undertakings from Dover and Apergy, including those regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not satisfied, Dover and its stockholders at the time of the Separation may not be able to rely on the IRS Ruling or the opinion and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the IRS Ruling and the opinion of tax counsel, the IRS could determine through an audit that the distribution is taxable if it determines that any of the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion. In addition, Dover and Apergy intend for certain related transactions to qualify for tax-free treatment under U.S. federal, state and local tax law and/or foreign tax law.
If the distribution is determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Dover and its stockholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities. For example, if the distribution fails to qualify for tax-free treatment, Dover would for U.S. federal income tax purposes be treated as if it had sold the Apergy common stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value, and Dover’s stockholders who are subject to U.S. federal income tax would be treated as receiving a taxable distribution in an amount equal to the fair market value of the Apergy common stock received in the distribution. In addition, if certain related transactions fail to qualify for tax-free treatment under U.S. federal, state and local tax law and/or foreign tax law, Dover (and, under the tax matters agreement described below, Apergy) could incur significant tax liabilities under U.S. federal, state, local and/or foreign tax law, respectively.
Under the tax matters agreement between Dover and Apergy, Apergy would generally be required to indemnify Dover for taxes incurred by Dover that arise as a result of Apergy’s taking, or failing to take, as the case may be, certain actions or any breach of any representations made by Apergy that, in either case, result in the distribution failing to meet the requirements of a tax-free distribution under Section 355 of the Code or of such related transactions failing to qualify for tax-free treatment. Also, under the tax matters agreement, Apergy would generally be required to indemnify Dover for one-half of taxes and other liabilities incurred by Dover if the distribution fails to meet the requirements of a tax-free distribution under Section 355 of the Code for reasons other than an act or failure to act on the part of Apergy or Dover, and therefore Apergy might be required to indemnify Dover for such taxes and liabilities due to circumstances and events not within our control. Under the tax matters agreement, Apergy is also required to indemnify Dover for one-half of certain taxes incurred as a result of the restructuring activities undertaken to effectuate the distribution, whether payable upon filing tax returns related to the restructuring and distribution or upon a subsequent audit of those returns. Our indemnification obligations to Dover under the tax matters agreement are not limited by a maximum amount. If we are required to indemnify Dover under the circumstances set forth in
the tax matters agreement, we may be subject to substantial liabilities, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Under the tax matters agreement between Dover and Apergy, Dover may, in its sole discretion, make protective elections under Section 336(e) of the Code for Apergy and some or all of its domestic subsidiaries with respect to the distribution. If, notwithstanding the IRS Ruling and the opinion of tax counsel, the distribution fails to qualify as tax-free under Section 355 of the Code, the Section 336(e) elections would generally cause deemed sales of the assets of Apergy and its electing subsidiaries, causing the Dover group to recognize a gain to the extent the fair market value of the assets exceeded the basis of Apergy and its electing subsidiaries in such assets. In such case, to the extent that Dover is responsible for the resulting transaction taxes, Apergy generally would be required under the tax matters agreement to make periodic payments to Dover equal to the tax savings arising from a “step up” in the tax basis of Apergy’s assets.
We may not be able to engage in certain corporate transactions as a result of the Separation.
To preserve the tax-free treatment to Dover and its stockholders at the time of the Separation of the contribution and the distribution and certain related transactions, under the tax matters agreement that Apergy entered into with Dover, Apergy is restricted from taking any action following the distribution that prevents the distribution and related transactions from being tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under the tax matters agreement, for the two-year period following the distribution, Apergy may be prohibited, except in certain circumstances, from:
entering into any transaction resulting, when combined with prior transactions, in the acquisition of 40% or more of its stock, or substantially all of its assets, whether by merger or otherwise;
merging, consolidating or liquidating;
issuing equity securities representing 40% or more of its stock, subject to certain exceptions and adjustments;
repurchasing its capital stock in excess of specified amounts;
ceasing to actively conduct its business or disposing of more than 25% of the assets used in its actively conducted business; and
engaging in certain internal transactions.
These restrictions may limit our ability to pursue certain strategic transactions or other transactions that we may believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders or that might increase the value of our business. In addition, under the tax matters agreement, we may be required to indemnify Dover against all or a portion of such tax liabilities as a result of the acquisition of Apergy’s stock or assets, even if it did not participate in or otherwise facilitate the acquisition.
The spin-off and related internal restructuring transactions may expose Apergy to potential liabilities arising out of state and federal fraudulent conveyance laws and legal dividend requirements.
If Dover files for bankruptcy or is otherwise determined or deemed to be insolvent under federal bankruptcy laws, a court could deem the spin-off or certain internal restructuring transactions undertaken by Dover in connection with the Separation to be a fraudulent conveyance or transfer. Fraudulent conveyances or transfers are defined to include transfers made or obligations incurred with the actual intent to hinder, delay or defraud current or future creditors or transfers made or obligations incurred for less than reasonably equivalent value when the debtor was insolvent, or that rendered the debtor insolvent, inadequately capitalized or unable to pay its debts as they become due. A court could void the transactions or impose substantial liabilities upon Apergy, which could adversely affect our financial condition and our results of operations. Among other things, the court could require Apergy’s stockholders to return to Dover some or all of the shares of its common stock issued in the spin-off, or require us to fund liabilities of other companies involved in the restructuring transactions for the benefit of creditors.
The distribution of Apergy’s common stock is also subject to review under state corporate distribution statutes. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may only pay dividends to its stockholders either (i) out of its surplus (net assets minus capital) or (ii) if there is no such surplus, out of its net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. Although Dover made the distribution of Apergy’s common stock entirely out of surplus, we cannot assure you that a court will not later determine that some or all of the distribution to Dover stockholders was unlawful.
Risks Related to the Proposed Acquisition of ChampionX
Apergy may not realize the anticipated cost synergies and growth opportunities from the Transactions.
Apergy expects that it will realize cost synergies, growth opportunities and other financial and operating benefits as a result of the Transactions. Apergy’s success in realizing these benefits, and the timing of their realization, depends on the successful
integration of the business operations of the ChampionX with Apergy. Even if Apergy is able to integrate ChampionX successfully, Apergy cannot predict with certainty if or when these cost synergies, growth opportunities and benefits will occur, or the extent to which they will actually be achieved. For example, the benefits from the Transactions may be offset by costs incurred in integrating the companies or in otherwise consummating the Transactions. Realization of any benefits and synergies could be affected by the factors described in other risk factors and a number of factors beyond Apergy’s control, including, without limitation, general economic conditions, further consolidation in the industry in which Apergy operates, increased operating costs and regulatory developments.
The integration of ChampionX with Apergy following the Transactions may present significant challenges.
There is a significant degree of difficulty inherent in the process of integrating ChampionX with Apergy. These difficulties include:
the integration of the ChampionX business with Apergy’s current businesses while carrying on the ongoing operations of all businesses;
managing a significantly larger company than before the consummation of the Transactions;
coordinating geographically separate organizations;
integrating the business cultures of each of ChampionX and Apergy, which may prove to be incompatible;
creating uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems and controlling the costs associated with such matters;
ability to ensure the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting;
integrating certain information technology, purchasing, accounting, finance, sales, billing, human resources, payroll and regulatory compliance systems; and
the potential difficulty in retaining key officers and personnel.
The process of integrating operations could cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of Apergy’s business. Members of Apergy’s senior management may be required to devote considerable amounts of time to this integration process, which will decrease the time they will have to manage Apergy, serve the existing Apergy business, or develop new products or strategies. If Apergy’s senior management is not able to effectively manage the integration process, or if any significant business activities are interrupted as a result of the integration process, the business of Apergy could suffer.
Apergy’s successful or cost-effective integration of ChampionX cannot be assured. The failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on Apergy’s business, financial condition or results of operations after the Transactions.
Apergy may fail to obtain the required regulatory approvals in connection with the Merger in a timely fashion, if at all, or regulators may impose burdensome conditions.
Apergy is subject to certain antitrust and competition laws, and the proposed Merger is subject to review and approval by regulators under those laws. Although Apergy has agreed to use reasonable best efforts to obtain the requisite approvals, there can be no assurance that these regulatory approvals will be obtained. Failure to obtain these regulatory approvals could adversely affect Apergy’s ability to operate its business after the Transactions or jeopardize the consummation of the Transactions themselves.
For example, the requirement to receive certain regulatory approvals before the consummation of the Transactions could delay the completion of the Transactions if, for example, one or more government agencies request additional information from the parties in order to facilitate their review of the Transactions. Any delay in the completion of the Transactions could diminish the anticipated benefits of the Transactions or result in additional transaction costs, loss of revenue or other effects associated with uncertainty about the Transactions. In addition, these governmental entities may attempt to condition their approval of the Transactions on the imposition of conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions that could have a material adverse effect on the Transactions themselves or Apergy’s business after the Transactions, including, but not limited to, Apergy’s operating results or the value of its common stock. If Apergy agrees to any material conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions in order to obtain any approvals required to complete the Transactions, the business, financial condition or results of operations of the combined company may be adversely affected.
Failure to complete the Transactions could adversely impact the market price of Apergy common stock as well as its business and operating results.
The consummation of the Transactions is subject to numerous conditions. There is no assurance that these conditions will be met and that the Transactions will be consummated.
If the Transactions are not completed for any reason, the price of Apergy common stock may decline to the extent that the market price of Apergy common stock reflects positive market assumptions that the Transactions will be completed and the related benefits will be realized. Apergy has expended and will continue to expend significant management time and resources and have incurred and will continue to incur significant expenses due to legal, advisory, printing and financial services fees related to the Transactions. These expenses must be paid regardless of whether the Transactions are consummated. Even if the Transactions are completed, any delay in the completion of the Transactions could diminish the anticipated benefits of the Transactions or result in additional transaction expenses, loss of revenue or other effects associated with uncertainty about the Transactions. If the Transactions are not consummated because the Merger Agreement is terminated, Apergy may be required under certain circumstances to pay Ecolab a termination fee of $89.8 million or may under other circumstances be required to reimburse Ecolab for expenses in connection with the Transactions in an amount equal to $25 million.
The pendency of the Merger could have an adverse effect on Apergy’s stock price, business, financial condition, results of operations or business prospects.
The announcement and pendency of the Merger could disrupt Apergy’s business in negative ways. For example, customers and other third-party business partners of Apergy or ChampionX may seek to terminate and/or renegotiate their relationships with Apergy or ChampionX as a result of the Merger, whether pursuant to the terms of their existing agreements with Apergy and/or ChampionX or otherwise. In addition, current and prospective employees of Apergy and ChampionX may experience uncertainty regarding their future roles with the combined company, which might adversely affect Apergy’s ability to retain, recruit and motivate key personnel. Should they occur, any of these events could adversely affect the stock price of, or harm the financial condition, results of operations or business prospects of, Apergy.
Apergy will incur significant costs related to the Transactions that could have a material adverse effect on its liquidity, cash flows and operating results.
Apergy expects to incur significant one-time costs in connection with the Transactions in 2019 and 2020. These costs have been, and will continue to be, substantial and, in many cases, will be borne by Apergy whether or not the Merger is completed. A substantial majority of these one-time costs will be transaction-related fees and expenses and include, among others, fees paid to financial, legal, accounting and other professional fees and transition and pre-Merger integration planning-related expenses. While Apergy expects to be able to fund these one-time costs using cash from operations and borrowings under existing and anticipated credit sources, these costs will negatively impact Apergy’s liquidity, cash flows and results of operations in the periods in which they are incurred.
The Transactions may discourage other companies from trying to acquire Apergy before or for a period of time following completion of the Transactions.
Certain provisions in the Merger Agreement prohibit Apergy from soliciting any acquisition proposal during the pendency of the Merger. In addition, the Merger Agreement obligates Apergy to pay Ecolab a termination fee in certain circumstances. Apergy’s financial condition will be adversely affected as a result of the payment of the termination fee in certain circumstances involving alternative acquisition proposals, which might deter third parties from proposing alternative acquisition proposals, including acquisition proposals that might result in greater value to Apergy stockholders than the Transactions. In addition, certain provisions of the tax matters agreement to be entered into between Apergy, ChampionX and Ecolab (the “Ecolab Tax Matters Agreement”) in connection with the Transactions, which are intended to preserve the intended tax treatment of certain aspects of the ChampionX Separation and the Distribution for U.S. federal income tax purposes, may discourage acquisition proposals for a period of time following the Transactions. Apergy currently expects to issue approximately 127.2 million shares of its common stock in connection with the Merger. Because Apergy will be a significantly larger company and have significantly more shares of common stock outstanding after the consummation of the Transactions, an acquisition of Apergy may become more expensive. As a result, some companies may not seek to acquire Apergy.
Under the Ecolab Tax Matters Agreement, Apergy will be restricted from taking certain actions that could adversely affect the intended tax treatment of the Transactions, and such restrictions could significantly impair Apergy’s ability to implement strategic initiatives that otherwise would be beneficial.
The Ecolab Tax Matters Agreement generally restricts Apergy from taking certain actions after the Distribution that could adversely affect the intended tax treatment of the Transactions. Failure to adhere to these restrictions could result in tax being imposed on Ecolab for which Apergy could bear responsibility and for which Apergy could be obligated to indemnify Ecolab. Any such indemnification obligation would likely be substantial and would likely have a material adverse effect on Apergy. In addition, because of these provisions in the Ecolab Tax Matters Agreement, Apergy will be restricted from taking certain actions, particularly for the two (or, in certain cases three) years following the Merger, including (among other things) the
ability to freely issue stock, to make acquisitions and to raise additional equity capital. These restrictions could have a material adverse effect on Apergy’s liquidity and financial condition, and otherwise could impair Apergy’s ability to implement strategic initiatives. Also, Apergy’s indemnity obligation to Ecolab might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control that stockholders of Apergy may consider favorable.
Current Apergy stockholders’ percentage ownership interest in Apergy will be substantially diluted in the Merger.
Immediately following the Merger, the pre-Merger Apergy equityholders will own, in the aggregate, approximately 38% of the issued and outstanding Apergy common stock on a fully diluted basis. Consequently, Apergy’s pre-Merger equityholders, as a group, will be substantially diluted in the Merger and have less ability to exercise influence over the management and policies of Apergy following the Merger than immediately prior to the Merger.
ChampionX may be negatively impacted if Apergy is unable to provide benefits and services, or access to equivalent financial strength and resources, to ChampionX that historically have been provided by Ecolab.
ChampionX has historically received benefits and services from Ecolab and has benefited from Ecolab’s financial strength and extensive network of service offerings. After the Transactions, ChampionX will be a subsidiary of Apergy, and ChampionX will no longer benefit from Ecolab’s services, financial strength or business relationships to the extent not otherwise addressed in the transaction documents contemplated by the ChampionX Separation. While Ecolab has agreed to provide certain transition services to ChampionX for a period of time following the consummation of the Transactions, it cannot be assured that Apergy will be able to adequately replace or provide resources formerly provided by Ecolab, or replace them at the same or lower cost. If Apergy is not able to replace the resources provided by Ecolab or is unable to replace them without incurring significant additional costs or is delayed in replacing the resources provided by Ecolab, Apergy’s results of operations may be negatively impacted.
Apergy and ChampionX may have difficulty attracting, motivating and retaining executives and other employees in light of the Transactions.
Uncertainty about the effect of the Transactions on current Apergy employees and/or ChampionX employees may have an adverse effect on Apergy. This uncertainty may impair Apergy’s ability to attract, retain and motivate personnel until the Transactions are completed. Employee retention may be particularly challenging during the pendency of the Transactions, as employees may feel uncertain about their future roles with Apergy after their combination. If large numbers of employees, or a concentration of critical employees of Apergy depart because of issues relating to the uncertainty or perceived difficulties of integration or a desire not to become employees of Apergy after the Transactions, Apergy’s ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Transactions could be reduced.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We lease our corporate headquarters in The Woodlands, Texas. We lease or own technical customer support offices and operating facilities in North America, Australia, the Middle East, and Latin America.
The following tables show information regarding our principal properties by reporting segment as of December 31, 2019:
Sales / Service/Other
Production & Automation Technologies
Production & Automation Technologies
We believe our properties and facilities are suitable for their present and intended purposes and are operating at a level consistent with the requirements of the industry in which we operate.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in various pending or potential legal actions in the ordinary course of our business. Management is unable to predict the ultimate outcome of these actions because of the inherent uncertainty of litigation. However, management believes the most probable, ultimate resolution of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the “APY” symbol. At January 31, 2020, our number of common stockholders of record was 1,099.
We have not declared or paid cash dividends in 2019, and we do not currently have a plan to pay cash dividends in the future.
We had no unregistered sales of equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2019. We had no repurchases of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2019.
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The chart compares the percentage change in the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return of the Philadelphia Oil Service Sector Index, and the S&P Composite 500 Stock Index. The comparison is for a period beginning May 9, 2018 and ending December 31, 2019. The chart assumes the investment of $100 on the closing price of May 9, 2018, and the reinvestment of all dividends.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth selected financial data of Apergy for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2019. Prior to the Separation, the selected historical financial data presented below consisted of the combined operations of certain Dover entities conducting its upstream oil and gas energy business, including an allocated portion of Dover’s corporate costs. Refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the basis of presentation of financial data prior to the Separation. Historical financial information for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, and 2015 has been revised to correct immaterial errors. See Note 1—Basis Of Presentation And Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the impact of the revisions on our prior period consolidated financial statements.
This information should be read in conjunction with Part I, Item 1 “Business,” Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(in thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31
Statement of income (loss) data:
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
Net income (loss)
Net income (loss) attributable to Apergy
Earnings (loss) per share attributable to Apergy(1):
As of December 31
Balance sheet data:
Cash and cash equivalents
Property, plant and equipment, net
Total Apergy stockholders’ equity
Total Parent Company equity
Years Ended December 31
Statement of cash flows data:
Net cash provided by operating activities
Net cash required by investing activities
Net cash required by financing activities
(1) For comparative purposes and to provide a more meaningful calculation of weighted-average shares outstanding, we have assumed the shares issued in conjunction with the Separation to be outstanding as of the beginning of each period prior to the Separation. In addition, we have assumed the potential dilutive securities outstanding as of May 8, 2018, were outstanding and fully dilutive in each of the periods with positive income prior to the Separation.
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This discussion includes forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for certain cautionary information regarding forward-looking statements and see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, for certain factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those predicted in those statements.
Apergy is a leading provider of highly engineered equipment and technologies that help companies drill for and produce oil and gas safely and efficiently around the world. Our products provide efficient functioning throughout the lifecycle of a well—from drilling to completion to production.
A description of our products and services and annual financial data for each reporting segment can be found in Part I, Item 1, “Business” and Note 20 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A discussion of our consolidated results of operations and the results of operations of each of our reporting segments for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 follows.
Separation and Distribution
On May 9, 2018, Apergy became an independent, publicly traded company as a result of the distribution by Dover of 100% of the outstanding common stock of Apergy to Dover’s stockholders. Dover’s Board of Directors approved the distribution on April 18, 2018 and Apergy’s Registration Statement on Form 10 was declared effective by the SEC on April 19, 2018. On May 9, 2018, Dover’s stockholders of record as of the close of business on the record date of April 30, 2018 received one share of Apergy stock for every two shares of Dover stock held at the close of business on the record date. Following the Separation, Dover retained no ownership interest in Apergy. Apergy’s common stock began “regular-way” trading on the NYSE under the “APY” symbol on May 9, 2018.
Basis of Presentation
Prior to the Separation, our results of operations, financial position and cash flows were derived from the consolidated financial statements and accounting records of Dover and reflect the combined historical results of operations, financial position and cash flows of certain Dover entities conducting its upstream oil and gas energy business within Dover’s Energy segment, including an allocated portion of Dover’s corporate costs. These financial statements have been presented as if such businesses had been combined for all periods prior to the Separation. All intercompany transactions and accounts within Dover were eliminated. The assets and liabilities were reflected on a historical cost basis since all of the assets and liabilities presented were wholly owned by Dover and were transferred within the Dover consolidated group. These pre-Separation combined financial statements may not include all of the actual expenses that would have been incurred had we been a stand-alone public company during the periods presented prior to the Separation and consequently may not reflect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows had we been a stand-alone public company during the periods presented prior to the Separation. All financial information presented after the Separation represents the consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows of Apergy. Refer to Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on the basis of presentation of the consolidated financial statements.
We focus on economic- and industry-specific drivers and key risk factors affecting our business segments as we formulate our strategic plans and make decisions related to allocating capital and human resources. Our business segments provide a broad range of technologies and products for the oil and gas drilling and production industry and, as a result, are substantially dependent upon activity levels in the oil and gas industry. Demand for our products, technologies and services is impacted by overall global demand for oil and gas, ongoing depletion rates of existing wells which produce oil and gas, and our customers’ willingness to invest in the development and production of oil and gas resources. Our customers determine their operating and capital budgets based on current and future crude oil and natural gas prices, U.S. and worldwide rig count and U.S. well completions, among other factors. Crude oil and natural gas prices are impacted by supply and demand, which are influenced by geopolitical, macroeconomic and local events and have historically been subject to substantial volatility and cyclicality. Future higher crude oil and natural gas prices typically translate into higher exploration and production budgets. Rig count, footage drilled and exploration and production investment by oil and gas operators have often been used as leading indicators for the level of drilling and development activity in the oil and gas sector.
Market Conditions and Outlook
In the third quarter of 2019, customer spending associated with U.S. land drilling, and exploration and production (E&P) activity began to deteriorate and the pace of customer spending declined rapidly during the fourth quarter, which resulted in lower than expected operational results for the second half of 2019. The rapid and steep decrease in the U.S. rig count in the last two quarters of the year led to a longer period of customers de-stocking their polycrystalline diamond cutter inventories, and combined with an earlier start to a decline in customers’ spending related to budget exhaustion, these events led to lower revenue volumes across our product portfolio. In light of these revenue declines, we engaged in cost management actions and progressed ongoing productivity initiatives to begin to mitigate the impact of lower activity levels in the second half of the year. Despite the declining U.S. drilling and E&P activity, we did experience growth in our international activity. Currently in 2020, we remain focused on (i) growing our ESP product line in the U.S. unconventional markets, (ii) capitalizing on well conversions to rod lift systems as well production declines, particularly in the Permian basin, (iii) further adoption of our “fit-for-purpose” digital products to improve our customers’ productivity and economics, (iv) continued innovation and advancement of our technology in diamond sciences, and (v) continued, albeit slower due to customer capital discipline, adoption of our diamond bearings offering for downhole applications.
Tariffs instituted by the U.S. government, and retaliatory tariffs and other trade restrictions by other countries, continue to introduce uncertainty to our business since some of our products are impacted by the tariffs imposed. We continue to work to mitigate the impacts of higher costs through various measures, including customer price increases, supplier price concessions and stronger supplier relationships, as well as continued cost discipline and operational productivity improvement initiatives.
Although risk remains that crude oil prices and activity levels could deteriorate further from current levels, we believe the long-term outlook for our businesses is favorable. Increasing global demand for oil and gas, in combination with ongoing depletion of existing reservoirs, is expected to drive continued investment in the drilling and completion of new wells. In addition, productivity and efficiency are becoming increasingly important in the oil and gas industry as operators focus on improving per-well economics.
Average crude oil and natural gas prices, rig counts and well completions are summarized below:
WTI crude ($ per bbl) (a)
Brent crude ($ per bbl) (a)
Henry Hub natural gas ($ per mmBtu) (a)
U.S. rig count (b)
Canada rig count (b)
International rig count (b)
Worldwide rig count
U.S. well completions (a)
(a) Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), as of January 21, 2020.
(b) Source: Baker Hughes Rig Count, as of January 21, 2020. Excludes Ukraine rig count.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019, 2018, AND 2017
Years Ended December 31,
2019 vs. 2018
2018 vs. 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of goods and services
Selling, general and administrative expense
Interest expense, net
Other expense, net
Income before income taxes
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
Net income attributable to Apergy
Gross profit margin
SG&A expense, percent of revenue
Effective tax rate
* Not meaningful
2019 Compared with 2018
Revenue. Revenue for the consolidated entity decreased $86.9 million, or (7.1)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year driven by
a $48.2 million decrease in revenue in our Production & Automation Technologies segment primarily related to a decline in
customer spending in North America in the second half of 2019 affecting both artificial lift and other production equipment
offerings, and a $38.7 million decrease in revenue in our Drilling Technologies segment mostly due to customers destocking of
their polycrystalline diamond cutter inventories resulting from the steep decline in U.S. land-based rig count throughout the second half of 2019.
Gross profit. Gross profit decreased $39.9 million, or (9.6)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year mainly due to lower sales
volume in both Production & Automation Technologies and Drilling Technologies. Partially offsetting the decrease in gross profit were lower salaries and wages primarily related to cost reductions from restructuring actions in both Production & Automation Technologies and Drilling Technologies.
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expense. Selling, general and administrative expense increased $11.1 million, or 4.2%, in 2019 compared to the prior year primarily due to $10.1 million of acquisition costs associated with the planned merger with ChampionX and other smaller acquisition-related spending, along with $3.0 million of increased bad debt expense, $2.8 million of increased professional fees related to material weaknesses identified in the fourth quarter of 2019, $2.0 million of environmental remediation charges, as well as a full year of costs in 2019 associated with being a stand-alone company since May 9, 2018. See “Risk Factors” in Part 1, Item 1A, and “Controls and Procedures” in Part II, Item 9A, for information related to the material weaknesses identified in our internal control over financial reporting. The increase in selling, general, and administrative expense was partially offset by a reduction in costs incurred related to the Separation of $8.3 million as compared to 2018.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net increased $11.7 million in 2019 compared to the prior year due to the full-year impact of issuances of our term loan facility and senior notes during the second quarter of 2018 related to the Separation, partially offset by a decrease resulting from debt repayments totaling $105 million on our term loan facility in 2019.
Provision for income taxes. Our provision for income taxes reflected effective tax rates of 10.5% and 23.2% in 2019 and 2018, respectively. The year-over-year decrease in the effective tax rate was primarily driven by deferred tax benefits associated with the 2018 pre-Separation tax return and a reduction in the combined state tax rate from 2018 to 2019 reflecting lower than estimated state income tax.
2018 Compared with 2017
Revenue. Revenue increased $207.7 million, or 20.6%, in 2018 compared to the prior year, driven by significant growth in U.S. and Canadian rig counts and increased well completion activity.
Gross profit. Gross profit increased $96.9 million, or 30.3%, in 2018 compared to the prior year, primarily due to a significant increase in sales volume related to improving oil and gas markets. Gross profit margin improved primarily due to the increase in sales volume, operating cost leverage, the benefits of prior year restructuring actions and lower restructuring cost.
Selling, general and administrative expense. Selling, general and administrative expense increased $43.5 million, or 19.7%, in 2018 compared to the prior year reflecting an increase in employee incentive compensation and corporate allocations by Dover as a result of a significant increase in revenues and earnings and an increase in the number of employees, partially offset by the benefits of prior restructuring actions and lower restructuring costs.
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes. Our provision for (benefit from) income taxes reflected effective tax rates of 23.2% and (25.1)% in 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in our effective tax rate in 2018 from 2017 was driven by a net tax benefit in 2017 of $49.3 million due to the Tax Reform Act which reduced the U.S. corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, which resulted in the re-evaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities which produced the 2017 net tax benefit.
SEGMENT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019, 2018, AND 2017
Production & Automation Technologies
Years Ended December 31,
2019 vs. 2018
2018 vs. 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Operating profit margin
Depreciation and amortization
Restructuring and other related charges
* Not meaningful
2019 Compared with 2018
Revenue. Production & Automation Technologies revenue decreased $48.2 million, or (5.2)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year, primarily due a decline in customer spending in the second half of 2019. This decline in customer spending led to lower volumes and associated revenue in our artificial lift and other production equipment offering in North America. The decrease in revenue was also attributable to the disposition of our pressure vessel manufacturing business in the second quarter of 2019. Partially offsetting the decrease in revenue was an increase in revenue from digital products of $15.4 million, or 12.9%, to $134.7 million in 2019, as well as an increase of $11.5 million in revenue generated in markets outside of North America.
Operating profit. Production & Automation Technologies operating profit decreased $20.2 million, or (27.2)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year. The decrease in operating profit was primarily due to lower sales volume, restructuring charges of $10.3 million primarily related to impairment and disposal of our pressure vessel manufacturing business, increased bad debt expense of $3.8 million, professional fees of $2.8 million related to incremental activities associated with material weaknesses that were identified during the fourth quarter of 2019, and environmental remediation charges of $2.0 million associated with our Norris Sucker Rods plant in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Partially offsetting the decrease in operating profit were increases associated with the benefits of productivity savings, including lower raw material costs, cost savings from our restructuring efforts, lower depreciation expense and a decrease in annual incentive compensation expense. Operating profit in 2019 also benefited from the absence of royalty charges from Dover which ended on April 1, 2018.
2018 Compared with 2017
Revenue. Production & Automation Technologies revenue increased $149.8 million, or 19.1%, in 2018 compared to the prior year. The increase in revenue was the result of significantly higher demand from our customers as a result of the increase of active drilling rigs and well completion activity in the U.S. and abroad.
Operating profit. Production & Automation Technologies operating profit increased $49.6 million, or 202.0%, in 2018 compared to the prior year. The higher operating profit was due to increased sales volume from improving oil and gas markets, cost savings realized from restructuring programs initiated in 2017, as well as a reduction in restructuring and other related charges year-over-year.
Years Ended December 31,
2019 vs. 2018
2018 vs. 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Operating profit margin
Depreciation and amortization
Restructuring and other related charges
* Not meaningful
2019 Compared with 2018
Revenue. Drilling Technologies revenue decreased $38.7 million, or (13.5)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year primarily driven by the significant decline in U.S. drilling activity in the second half of 2019 and the related customer destocking of polycrystalline diamond cutter inventories and pricing pressure. Partially offsetting the decrease in revenue was an increase driven by customer adoption of our diamond bearings technology.
Operating profit. Drilling Technologies operating profit decreased $25.1 million, or (25.5)%, in 2019 compared to the prior year primarily due to lower revenue, and to a lesser extent, higher professional fees associated with the defense of our patented technologies. Partially offsetting the decrease in operating profit were increases associated with the benefits of productivity initiatives and a decrease in operational expenses primarily driven by lower employee costs related to a decline in headcount as part of our restructuring actions in 2019 and a decrease in annual incentive compensation expense.
2018 Compared with 2017
Revenue. Drilling Technologies revenue increased $57.9 million, or 25.4%, in 2018 compared to the prior year. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by higher demand related to the growth in active drilling rigs in the United States and Canada.
Operating profit. Drilling Technologies operating profit increased $24.3 million in 2018 compared to the prior year due to higher volumes driven by growing U.S. rig counts and overall operational productivity gains.
CAPITAL RESOURCES AND LIQUIDITY
As of December 31, 2019, approximately $13.5 million, or 38.2%, of our cash balances were held outside the United States for the primary purpose of working capital and operational support needs. All of our cash held outside the United States could be repatriated; however, we have not provided for foreign withholding taxes on our undistributed foreign earnings from jurisdictions which impose such taxes since we have determined that such earnings are indefinitely reinvested in those jurisdictions.
Our primary source of cash is from operating activities. We have historically generated, and expect to continue to generate, positive cash flow from operations. We expect to meet the continuing funding requirements of our U.S. operations with cash generated by our U.S. operations, which includes the collection of accounts receivable, as well as borrowings under our revolving credit facility. Cash generated from operations is generally allocated to working capital requirements, investments in facilities and systems, acquisitions that create value with add-on capabilities that broaden our existing businesses and overall growth strategy, and debt repayments.
Years Ended December 31,
Cash provided by operating activities
Cash required by investing activities
Cash required by financing activities
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
Operating Cash Flows
Cash provided by operating activities in 2019 decreased $8.0 million compared to 2018. The decrease in cash provided by operating activities was primarily driven by lower net income, adjusted for non-cash items. Partially offsetting the decrease in cash provided by operating cash flows were increases from changes in our operating assets and liabilities in 2019 as compared to 2018, primarily due to improved collections of accounts receivable and a reduction in our inventory balance due to strict adherence to cost and capital discipline.
Cash provided by operating activities in 2018 increased $87.9 million compared to 2017. The increase in cash provided by operating activities was primarily driven by higher net income adjusted for non-cash items. Both our Production & Automation Technologies and Drilling Technologies segments reported increased cash income year-over-year. Additionally, we required less net cash investment in working capital in 2018 as compared to 2017.
“Leased assets” in the operating cash flows section of our consolidated statement of cash flows include expenditures for cable and downhole equipment expected to be placed into our leased asset program as well as the recovery of net book value associated with the sale of damaged leased equipment during the period.
Investing Cash Flows
Cash required by investing activities was $49.9 million in 2019 and was primarily comprised of capital expenditures of $39.8 million, a $12.5 million payment to acquire a provider of digital technology strategic to our artificial lift product offering, and a $2.2 million payment to dispose of our pressure vessel manufacturing business. Refer to Note 5 and Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to these acquisitions and dispositions, respectively. These cash outflows were partially offset by $4.6 million of cash proceeds on sale of fixed assets, primarily due to the sale of two of our properties during 2019.
Cash required by investing activities was $54.2 million in 2018 and was primarily comprised of capital expenditures of $57.9 million, partially offset by net proceeds $2.5 million related to sale of our Fisher Pump business and related property, and proceeds of $1.2 million related to the sale of fixed assets.
Cash required by investing activities was $41.9 million in 2017 and was primarily comprised of capital expenditures and an $8.8 million payment to acquire a supplier of progressive cavity pump products and services. Refer to Note 5 to our
consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to this acquisition.
“Capital expenditures” in the investing cash flows section of our consolidated statement of cash flows include expenditures for surface equipment expected to be placed into our leased asset program. During the year ended December 31, 2019, capital expenditures consisted mostly of infrastructure related capital spending and $16.0 million of investment in surface equipment for our leased asset program. During the year ended December 31, 2018, capital expenditures consisted mostly of infrastructure related capital spending and $26.7 million of investment in surface equipment for our leased asset program.
Financing Cash Flows
Cash required by financing activities of $112.4 million in 2019 was primarily the result of $105.0 million of debt repayment on the principal balance of our term loan and payments totaling $5.6 million for capital lease obligations. Net borrowings under our revolving credit facility totaled zero in 2019.
Cash required by financing activities was $90.8 million in 2018, and was the result of net transfers to Dover of $736.6 million, primarily comprised of our $700.0 million payment to Dover related to the Separation, and $45.0 million of debt repayment on the principal balance of our term loan. These payments were partially offset by issuances of long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs and original issue discounts, of $698.0 million. Net borrowings under our revolving credit facility totaled zero in 2018.
Cash required by financing activities of $36.7 million in 2017 was primarily due to net transfers to Dover.
Debt and Liquidity
Total borrowings were comprised of the following:
December 31, 2019
December 31, 2018
Revolving credit facility
Term loan facility
6.375% Senior Notes due 2026
Capital lease obligations
On May 3, 2018, and in connection with the Separation, we completed the offering of $300.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.375% senior notes due May 2026 (“Senior Notes”). Interest on the Senior Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears on May 1 and November 1 of each year commencing on November 1, 2018. Net proceeds of $293.8 million from the offering were utilized to partially fund the cash payment to Dover and to pay fees and expenses incurred in connection with the Separation.
Senior Secured Credit Facilities
On May 9, 2018, we entered into a credit agreement (“credit agreement”) governing the terms of our senior secured credit facilities, consisting of (i) a seven-year senior secured term loan B facility (“term loan facility”) and (ii) a five-year senior secured revolving credit facility (“revolving credit facility,” and together with the term loan facility, the “senior secured credit facilities”), with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. as administrative agent. The net proceeds of the senior secured credit facilities were used to pay fees and expenses in connection with the Separation, partially fund the cash payment to Dover and provide for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
Term Loan Facility. The term loan facility had an initial commitment of $415.0 million. The full amount of the term loan facility was funded on May 9, 2018. Amounts borrowed under the term loan facility that are repaid or prepaid may not be re-borrowed. The term loan facility matures in May 2025. Net proceeds of $408.7 million from the term loan facility were utilized to partially fund the cash payment to Dover and to pay fees and expenses incurred in connection with the Separation.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we repaid $105.0 million of our term loan facility.
Revolving Credit Facility. The revolving credit facility consists of a five-year senior secured facility with aggregate commitments in an amount equal to $250.0 million, of which up to $50.0 million is available for the issuance of letters of credit. Amounts repaid under the revolving credit facility may be re-borrowed. The revolving credit facility matures in May 2023.
A summary of our revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2019 was as follows:
Five-year revolving credit facility
As of December 31, 2019, we were in compliance with all restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facility.
See Note 10—Debt to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
We expect to generate our liquidity and capital resources through operations and, when needed, through our revolving credit facility. We have $243.8 million of capacity available under our revolving credit facility that we expect to utilize if working capital needs temporarily increase. The volatility in credit, equity and commodity markets creates some uncertainty for our businesses. However, management believes, based on our current financial condition and current expectations of future market conditions, that we will meet our short- and long-term needs with a combination of cash on hand, cash generated from operations, our use of our revolving credit facility and access to capital markets.
Over the next year, we expect to fund our organic capital expenditure needs and reduce our leverage through earnings growth and further debt reduction. We continue to focus on improving our customer collection efforts and overall working capital efficiency to improve our cash flow position. In 2020, we project spending approximately two and one-half percent of revenue for infrastructure related capital expenditures and an additional $5.0 million to $10.0 million for capital investments directed at expanding our portfolio of electric submersible pump leased assets.
We continue to evaluate acquisitions that meet our strategic priorities, expand our technology and product portfolio, improve our cost position or productivity, or broaden our geographic reach. The foregoing “Outlook” excludes the impact of our pending acquisition of ChampionX. See Part 1, Item 1, “Merger Agreement with ChampionX.”
The following is a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2019:
Payments Due by Period
Less than 1 year
After 5 years
Interest on long-term debt (1)
Supplemental and post-retirement benefits (2)
Total contractual obligations
(1) Interest included relates to our senior notes. Interest on our term loan was not included as we cannot estimate these obligations given its variable nature.
(2) Amounts represent estimated benefit payments under our unfunded employee benefit plans. See Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Other Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $15.7 million outstanding letters of credit, surety bonds and guarantees which expire at various dates through 2026. These financial instruments are primarily maintained as security for insurance, warranty and other performance obligations. Generally, we would only be liable for the amount of these letters of credit and surety bonds in the event of default in the performance of our obligations, the probability of which we believe is remote.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions about future events that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods presented and the related disclosures in the accompanying notes to the financial statements. Management has reviewed these critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. We believe the following critical accounting estimates used in preparing our financial statements address all important areas where the nature of the estimates or assumptions is material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change. See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of our significant accounting policies.
Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We evaluate the components of inventory on a regular basis for excess and obsolescence. We record the decline in the carrying value of estimated excess or obsolete inventory as a reduction of inventory and as an expense included in cost of sales in the period in which it is identified. Our estimate of excess and obsolete inventory is a critical accounting estimate because it is highly susceptible to change from period to period. In addition, the estimate requires management to make judgments about the future demand of inventory. Factors that could materially impact our estimate include changes in crude oil prices and its effect on the oil and gas industry, which would impact the demand for our products and services, as well as changes in the pattern of demand for the products that we offer. We believe our inventory valuation reserve is adequate to properly value potential excess and obsolete inventory as of December 31, 2019. However, any significant changes to the factors mentioned above could lead our estimate to change. Refer to Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to inventory.
Long-Lived and Intangible Assets Valuation
Long-lived assets to be held and used, including property, plant and equipment, identifiable intangible assets being amortized and capitalized software costs are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the long-lived asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. If it is determined that an impairment loss has occurred, the loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. The determination of future cash flows as well as the estimated fair value of long-lived assets involves significant estimates on the part of management. Because there usually is a lack of quoted market prices for long-lived assets, fair value of impaired assets is typically determined based on the present values of expected future cash flows using discount rates believed to be consistent with those used by principal market participants, or based on a multiple of operating cash flow validated with historical market transactions of similar assets where possible. The expected future cash flows used for impairment reviews and related fair value calculations are based on judgmental assessments of future productivity of the asset, operating costs and capital decisions and all available information at the date of review. If future market conditions deteriorate from our current expectations or assumptions, impairment of long-lived assets may be identified if we conclude that the carrying amounts are no longer recoverable. Long-lived assets classified as held for sale are reported at the disposal group’s fair value, less cost to sell, beginning in the period in which the held-for-sale criteria have been met. An impairment loss is recognized in the amount in which the carrying amount of the disposal group exceeds its fair value. The fair value of a disposal group is measured based on market information when available, such as negotiated selling price. Because there usually is a lack of market prices for long-lived assets, the fair value of impaired held for sale assets is typically determined based on the present values of expected future cash flows using discount rates believed to be consistent with those used by principal market participants. We recorded $1.7 million of impairment in 2019 related to classifying our pressure vessel manufacturing business in our Production & Automated Technologies segment as held for sale, and $1.0 million and $3.6 million of impairments during 2018 and 2017, respectively, primarily related to restructuring activities.
Valuation of Goodwill
Goodwill is not subject to amortization but is tested for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level, which is at or one level below our operating segments. We have established October 1 as the date of our annual test for impairment of goodwill. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. The goodwill impairment test involves comparing management’s estimate of fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying value, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, then goodwill is impaired to the extent of the difference; however, the impairment may not exceed the balance of goodwill assigned to that reporting unit.
When performing a goodwill impairment test, we estimate fair value using the income approach. Under the income approach, fair value is determined based on the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at an appropriate risk-adjusted rate. The discount rate, which was estimated based upon the weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”), applied to the estimated future cash flows is one of the most significant assumptions utilized under the income approach. We determined the WACC for the Company and each of its reporting units were not dissimilar, and as such, applied the same WACC for each reporting unit. The WACC takes into account both the cost of debt and cost of equity. The estimates and assumptions necessary in a discounted future cash flow model include revenue growth rates and operating margins used to calculate projected future cash flows, discount rates believed to be consistent with those used by principal market participants and future economic and market conditions. Our estimates are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and do not reflect unanticipated events and circumstances that may occur. A lower fair value estimate in the future for any of our reporting units could result in goodwill impairments. Factors that could trigger a lower fair value estimate include price declines of the reporting unit’s products and services, cost increases, changes in our WACC, regulatory or political environment changes, changes in customer demand, changes to business models, and other changes in market conditions, which may affect certain market participant assumptions used in the discounted future cash flow model.
We had three reporting units for the purposes of assessing our goodwill balance for impairment as of October 1, 2019 as follows: (i) Artificial Lift, (ii) Automation, and (iii) Drilling Technologies. Artificial Lift and Automation are in the Production & Automation Technologies reportable segment, and Drilling Technologies is our Drilling Technologies reportable segment.
Significant assumptions used in our October 1, 2019 goodwill impairment review included: (i) a discount rate of 11.3%; (ii) annual revenue growth rates generally ranging from (4.9%) to 23.2% in the short term and 3.0% to 5.0% in the long term; (iii) operating margins ranging from 6.7% to 37.6% in the short term associated with market declines, but sustained or slightly increased gross margins long term; and (iv) terminal values for each reporting unit using a long-term growth rate of 3.0%. If actual results differ from estimates used in these calculations, we could incur future impairment charges.
The Automation and Drilling Technologies reporting units had goodwill balances of $229.6 million and $101.1 million, respectively, at the time of the October 1, 2019 assessment. Each of these reporting units’ fair values substantially exceeded their carrying values.
The Artificial Lift reporting unit had a goodwill balance of $580.0 million at October 1, 2019. For the Artificial Lift reporting unit, fair value exceeded the carrying value (“headroom”) by more than 20% but less than 30%. The value derived from the income approach decreased 17.8% and the headroom decreased 51.1% from the October 1, 2018 annual goodwill impairment review. The October 1, 2019 impairment review assumed a WACC of 11.3% compared to 10.6% in the October 1, 2018 review, and a long-term growth rate of 3.0% used in computing the terminal value, which is consistent with the October 1, 2018 review. Revenue growth rates in the October 1, 2019 impairment review range from (4.2%) to 9.3% in the short-term as compared to 8.0% to 13.0% in the October 1, 2018 review. Long-term revenue growth rates ranging from 3.0% to 5.0% were used in the 2019 review, consistent with the 2018 review. In the latter half of 2019, customer spending associated with U.S. land drilling and exploration and production activity progressively deteriorated, which resulted in lower than expected operational results for the reporting unit. Continued deterioration of customer spending for a prolonged period of time may have an adverse impact on the economics of certain of our artificial lift product offering, further impacting the financial results of the reporting unit. We have engaged in cost management actions and progressed ongoing productivity initiatives to begin to mitigate the impact of lower activity levels. Management is monitoring the overall market, specifically crude oil prices, rig counts and related customer spending especially in the Permian basin and certain international markets, and its effect on the estimates and assumptions used in our goodwill impairment test for our Artificial Lift reporting unit, which may require re-evaluation and could result in an impairment of goodwill for this reporting unit. As a result of market conditions noted above, headroom at our Artificial Lift reporting unit decreased from 45% at the time of our 2018 annual assessment to 22% at the time of our 2019 annual assessment. Assuming all other components of our fair value estimate remain unchanged, a change in the following assumptions would have the following effect on headroom for our Artificial Lift reporting unit (i) a decline in revenue growth rates by 100 basis points reduces headroom to 15%, (ii) a decline in operating margins by 100 basis points reduces headroom to 14%, and (iii) an increase in discount rate by 100 basis points reduces headroom to 8%.
Certain of the inherent estimates and assumptions used in determining fair value of the reporting units are outside of the control of management. While the Company believes it has made reasonable estimates and assumptions to calculate the fair values of the reporting units, actual results may differ from those used in the Company’s valuations and could result in impairment charges. The Company will continue to monitor its reporting units for any triggering events or other signs of impairment. The Company may be required to perform interim impairment tests based on changes in the economic environment, further sustained deterioration of the Company’s market capitalization, and other factors in the future.
We have not recognized any goodwill impairments in 2019, 2018, or 2017, as the fair value of our reporting units exceeded their carrying amounts. In addition, there were no negative conditions, or triggering events, that occurred in 2019 requiring us to perform additional impairment reviews.
Accounting for Income Taxes
Prior to the Separation, our income tax expense and deferred tax balances had been estimated as if we had filed income tax returns on a stand-alone basis separate from Dover. Income taxes payable computed under the stand-alone return basis are classified within “Net parent investment in Apergy” at each balance sheet date prior to the Separation since Dover is legally liable for the tax. Accordingly, changes in income taxes payable prior to the Separation are recorded as a component of “Distributions to Dover Corporation, net” in financing activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows. As a stand-alone entity, our deferred taxes and effective tax rates may differ from those of Dover for periods prior to the Separation.
Our income tax expense, and deferred tax asset and liability balances reflect management’s best assessment of estimated future taxes to be paid. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining our consolidated income tax expense. In determining our current income tax provision, we assess temporary differences resulting from differing treatments of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are recorded in our consolidated balance sheets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. When we maintain deferred tax assets, we must assess the likelihood that these assets will be recovered through adjustments to future taxable income. To the extent we believe recovery is not likely, we establish a valuation allowance to reduce the asset to a value we believe will be recoverable based on our expectation of future taxable income. We believe the accounting estimate related to the valuation allowance is a critical accounting estimate because it is susceptible to change from period to period, requires management to make assumptions about our future income over the lives of the deferred tax assets, and because the impact of increasing or decreasing the valuation allowance is potentially material to our results of operations.
The calculation of our income tax expense involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in numerous jurisdictions in which we operate. We recognize tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions when, in our judgment, it is more likely than not that such positions will be sustained on examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation, based on the technical merits. We adjust our liabilities for uncertain tax positions when our judgment changes as a result of new information previously unavailable. We routinely monitor the potential impact of these situations. We had no reserves recorded for uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2019 or 2018.
Reserves related to tax accruals and valuations related to deferred tax assets can be impacted by changes in tax codes and rulings, changes in statutory tax rates and our future taxable income levels. The Tax Reform Act, enacted on December 22, 2017, significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates, implementing a territorial tax system and imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. The Tax Reform Act reduced the U.S. corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35% to a flat 21% rate, effective January 1, 2018. The Tax Reform Act also provided for a one-time deemed repatriation of post-1986 undistributed foreign subsidiary earnings and profits through the year ended December 31, 2017. In 2017, we recognized the provisional tax impacts related to deemed repatriated earnings and the benefit for the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and included these amounts in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. Refer to Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our accounting for the Tax Reform Act.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Refer to Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to certain market risks, including fluctuations in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. After the Separation from Dover, we have not utilized derivative financial instruments to manage or mitigate our exposure to these risks. Also, we do not use derivative financial instruments where the objective is to generate profits solely from trading activities.
Commodity Price Risk
We use a variety of raw materials, primarily metals and semi-processed or finished components, that are generally available from various sources. Commodity pricing for metals, such as nickel, chrome, molybdenum, vanadium, manganese and steel scrap, fluctuate with the market. As a result, our earnings are exposed to commodity market price fluctuations. Although some cost increases may be recovered through increased prices to customers, we attempt to control such costs through fixed-price contracts with suppliers and various other programs, such as our global supply chain activities.
Foreign Currency Risk
We conduct operations around the world in a number of different currencies. Many of our foreign subsidiaries have designated the local currency as their functional currency. Our earnings are therefore subject to change due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates when the earnings in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars. We do not hedge this translation impact on earnings. A 10% increase or decrease in the average exchange rates of all foreign currencies would have changed our revenue and income before income taxes by approximately 1.5% and 5.1%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2019.
When transactions are denominated in currencies other than our subsidiaries’ respective functional currencies, both with external parties and intercompany relationships, these transactions result in increased exposure to foreign currency exchange effects. Currently, we do not manage these exposures through the use of derivative instruments. Consequently, significant changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly the Canadian Dollar, the Australian Dollar, the Argentinian Peso, the Colombian Peso and the Omani Rial, could have negative impacts on our reported results of operations.
Interest Rate Risk
Our use of fixed- or variable-rate debt directly exposes us to interest rate risk. Fixed-rate debt, such as the senior notes, exposes us to changes in the fair value of our debt due to changes in market interest rates. Fixed-rate debt also exposes us to the risk that we may need to refinance maturing debt with new debt at higher rates, or that we may be obligated to pay rates higher than the current market rate. Variable-rate debt, such as our term loan or borrowings under our revolving credit facility, exposes us to short-term changes in market rates that impact our interest expense.
As of December 31, 2019, we had unhedged variable rate debt of $265.0 million with an interest rate of 4.42%. Using sensitivity analysis to measure the impact of a change in the interest rate, a 10% adverse movement in the interest rate, or 44 basis points, would result in an increase to interest expense of $1.2 million on an annualized basis.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA